Causes of Dark Gums

An attractive smile is composed not just of clear and straight teeth, but also of clean gums. The natural color of gums is coral pink, but there are instances where they become dark for a variety of reasons. Having normal-looking gums is not just about cosmetics, because it can also be about health, as dark gums may be a result or symptom of certain medical conditions.

According to the website of the Bayside dentists of Dental Expressions by Dr. Gary Bram, there are various treatment methods available to bring back the healthy and pink color of dark gum tissues, such as lasers. But why do some people have dark gums to begin with? Below are some of the most common reasons why.

Natural Coloration

Even though it is mentioned earlier that the natural color of gums is coral pink, it is important to point out that this is not the case for everybody, especially those that have darker skin. The dark gums may just be the result of skin pigmentation and nothing more.

Poor Oral Hygiene

If you don’t clean your teeth frequently and thoroughly, there may be a buildup between them that may be bad enough to affect even the gums. There may be irritation, inflammation, and eventually, darkening of the gums, as a result of poor oral hygiene.

On its worst instances, brushing teeth isn’t going to be enough to clean your teeth, as you may require professional cleaning from a dentist.

Bad Habits

Certain lifestyle choices can also influence gum coloration, such as smoking. Smoking has been known to cause dark gums, and this can easily be seen by comparing the gums of smokers and non-smokers. Cocaine consumption, especially when applied on oral mucous membranes, can also cause darkening.

Medical Conditions

Black gum disease, or acute necrotizing periodontal disease, is a real thing. The darkening of the gums may be the result of death of tissues. Aside from the darkening, the condition may also lead to bleeding, pain, and bad breath.

Oral conditions such as this are often the result of poor oral hygiene and bad habits, so it is best to avoid those things to ensure your overall health, not just your dental health.

Possible Liable Parties in a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit

For certain types of health problems, the last form of treatment that a doctor would usually recommend is surgery. Surgery is a complicated and risky medical procedure, but while many patients successfully go through it, others are just too weak to make it through the operation or a short while after the operation. There are cases, however, as shown through government records, when patients either suffer complications or never make it, not because they have weak bodies, but due, rather, to mistakes committed by those in charge of the procedure itself.

According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, errors during surgical procedures is just one of the many forms of medical mistakes which doctors, nurses, other medical professionals, hospitals and clinics are guilty of. Other items in the list of medical mistakes include misdiagnosis, failure to diagnose, delayed treatment, wrong medication, and birth injury. All these mistakes result either to new health problems or to the worsening of an existing illness, diminishing the quality of life of many individuals.

In 2010, as reported by the Office of the Inspector General for Health and Human Services, about 180,000 Medicare patients died due to medical mistakes. The actual figure, however, as printed in the Journal of Patient Safety, patient deaths (including those not covered by Medicare) fall between 210,000 and 440,000.

From the figures given above, surgical errors account for, at least, 4,000 cases each year. Specific cases of surgical error include: wrong-person surgery; incorrect surgical procedure; wrong-site surgery; improper suturing; accidental puncture or laceration; removal of wrong organ; foreign bodies left inside a patient’s body; wrong dosage of anesthesia; post-operative hemorrhage or hematoma; physiologic and metabolic derangement; wound dehiscence, a surgical complication wherein a wound ruptures along a surgical suture; pulmonary embolism; and, wrongful death due to complications from negligent surgery.

Medical mistakes, especially surgical error, happen more frequently than many others think. What is equally disturbing is that these are committed even by well trained and experienced surgeons and the best hospitals in the US. Take, for example, the case of a 70-year old patient who died after two surgeons mistakenly removed the wrong kidney from his body; there are also reports of operating on the wrong side of a patient’s brain which happened three times within just a year, and all in the same hospital.

These mistakes are the bases of thousands of medical malpractice lawsuits filed against surgeons, nurses and the hospitals where these medical professionals are employed. Many hospitals, through their insurance providers, however, avoid lawsuits as much as these can by trying to settle with patients in order to protect their reputation, avoid the complexities of the legal procedure, and avoid paying costly compensation which the court may oblige these to pay their victims.

Medical professionals, by the way, as pointed out in the website of the Clawson & Staubes law firm, includes “licensed doctors, nurses, chiropractors, dentists, surgeons, physician’s assistants, pharmacists and any other medical professional that provides the claimant with care. Nursing homes and hospitals as well as EMS providers and paramedics” are also expected to provide a standard of care to which these can be held responsible if these fail to uphold such standard.

Lasting Effects of a Spinal Cord Injury

You’ll find hardly any things that compare to the seriousness of experiencing a spinal cord injury. While experts are attempting to create more efficient solutions to help in flexibility in addition to discovering more medicines to aid in the healing of damaged nerves back injuries tend to be irreversible and untreatable. Spinal cord injuries, as well as mind and neck injuries, need instant medical consideration: these types of injuries, when they happen, are addressed around the world to stop injuries or further damage. This therapy that is instant may also reduce long-term accidents although expectations in these circumstances are constrained as the spinal cord is permanent and vulnerable.

Back injuries can be dilapidating. They can sometimes be a consequence of strong triggers including automobile collisions or drops, office incidents, or they can develop into a complication from oblique triggers such as an already existing disease or other health issues. Spinal cord accidents are not only physically wearing – those who suffer from back injuries are also enduring the intellectual and emotional injury that accompany it. Fiscal concerns can happen due to the lost capability to work and long treatment and rehabilitation. A spinal cord damage could halt you from returning to function, for locate a good paying job, or you might lose your power. Dads who’ve lately experienced spinal cord accidents can have difficulty helping their youngsters – possibly child assistance may be hindered by these injuries – which may trigger significant anxiety and lost time together with the child.

Having an excellent group of people who will provide assistance and care are important in any kind of back injury’s remedy. According to the internet site of the Seegmiller Law Firm, those individuals who have been hurt due to another person’s negligence may seek payment for that medical and rehabilitation costs, problems, missed function, as well as emotional and intellectual injury, because many spinal cord injuries are everlasting and life-changing. There are various success stories about individuals who had back injuries but have overcome their issues, although having a personal injury make a difference your path of life. Handling an accident is tricky care, proper data and service from people you love, rather than stopping on fresh solutions and drugs, lifestyle nevertheless continues on.

Premises Liability

We trust that the buildings we enter are safe and functional for at least the time that we will be there. This is reasonable and necessary to live our day to day lives without fear. However, this trust is sometimes misplaced. Especially as a building ages and the wear and tear starts to affect its structure, a premises can quickly become unsafe. It is, in this case, the responsibility to property owners to care for and maintain their buildings so that they may remain safe for all who enter. Unfortunately, this doesn’t always occur.

Common premises liability cases involve: elevator / escalator injuries, slip and fall accidents, porch collapse, stair collapse, fires, toxic molds, lead paint exposure, mercury poisoning, pesticide exposure, swimming pool injuries.

Any accident involving the collapse of a structure in a building is often the result of the wear and tear that comes with a buildings ageing and frequent use. A building is way more likely to break down as years pass than due to an initial design flaw right after it is built. Buildings must be maintained and these structures must be consistently reinforced as time goes on so that injuries can be avoided. It is the responsibility of property owners to maintain their structures.

Injuries caused by dangerous premises can be extremely harmful and in some cases, life threatening. Because of the nature of such incidents, these are rarely simply unfortunate accidents. Many times, they would have been preventable if there had been proper upkeep and care of the building by property owners. Therefore, these often the fault of the carelessness or neglect of the product manufacturer or another party. In these cases the victim of such an injury may be owed certain damages.

Cerebral Palsy: From the Mildest to the Worst Types

Cerebral palsy, which is currently the most common neurological or brain disorder among children in the US, is an incurable, chronic condition that affects muscle coordination, body movement, sensation, perception, cognition, speech and many other brain functions. This disorder is a result either of abnormal brain growth or brain injury, the causes for which may have occurred before, during or after childbirth.

There are four major categories of cerebral palsy, each being based on the part/s of the body affected and the severity of the effects. These categories (and their sub-categories) include:

  • Spastic. This form of cerebral palsy is the most common in children; it also disrupts normal growth, limits stretching of muscles during movement, causes abnormal movements and malformations in the development of muscles and joints. Spastic CP has five types:
    • a.1. Spastic diplegia – which affects both legs or both arms, though, the legs are the ones most usually affected.
    • a.2. Spastic quadriplegia – this is the most incapacitating and severe type of spastic cerebral palsy, affecting all four limbs of the body.
    • a.3. Spastic hemiplegia –this disorder impairs the limbs on one side of the body (one arm and one leg).
    • a.4. Spastic monoplegia and spastic triplegia – the first affects only one limb ( one leg or one arm), while the second affects three limbs. These types of CP are very rare, though.
  • Athetoid or dyskinetic cerebral palsy – this involves slow and uncontrolled writhing movements of one’s hands, arms and/or legs, as well as involuntary facial grimaces and drooling. This type of cerebral palsy does not affect a child’s mental ability, though, allowing him/her to even possess above average intelligence.
  • Ataxic cerebral palsy – a child suffering from this type of CP can be deemed as clumsy and/or jerky. It also causes tremors or shaky movements, and difficulty in maintaining balance, in patients.
  • Mixed cerebral palsy – is the combination of any two types of cerebral palsy; however, the most common is the combination of athetoid and spastic.

Many of the causes of cerebral palsy are results of acts of negligence that lead to medical malpractice.

The Very Serious Risks Presented by Defective Tires

When talking about a vehicle’s most important safety features the parts that many experts commonly identify are the tires. Tires directly affect and influence any vehicles’ braking capability, stability, handling, steering and traction as these are the ones that have direct contact with the road; thus, when tires are defective or fail, these can cause the driver to lose control of the vehicle and possibly suffer a tragic accident, especially if the vehicle is running at highway speed.

To make sure that vehicles and aftermarket vehicle parts would never cause accidents or would be able to provide enough protection to drivers and passengers if ever an accident occurs, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an agency of the federal government, has issued the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and Regulations. These regulations on safety standards specify the minimum safety performance required on motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts; all manufacturers are called to conform and certify compliance with this regulation, which aims to protect the public “against unreasonable risk of crashes occurring as a result of the design, construction, or performance of motor vehicles,” as well as “against unreasonable risk of death or injury in the event crashes do occur.” (

Data from the National Transportation Safety Board indicate close to 11,000 tire-related accidents in the US every year; these accidents leave about 200 dead and 6,000 injured. Some of the identified causes of these accidents include:

  • Tire Defects – this may be due to poor manufacturing standards or poor engineering tire design.
  • Tread Separation – the result of the tire’s belts getting torn apart from one another. This leads to the tread getting detached from the tire while the vehicle is at high speed. Tread separation, which is actually due to manufacturing flaws, like insufficient tire bonding, increases the risk of catastrophic accidents;
  • Tire Blowout – usually due to a cut or a puncture in the tire’s sidewall which, in turn, is due to a faulty rim that either causes the bead to break or a cut into the sidewall. Tire blowout can also occur because of low or high air pressure in the tire or if the vehicle drives over a sharp object, like a nail.
  • Sidewall Zipper Failure – this tire failure is so named due to the zipper pattern that usually appears after tire damage occurs; it is characterized by the tire’s sidewall’s explosion which can occur while the tire is being inflated.
  • Bead Fracture – this is due to the high stress suffered by the bead that has gotten caught on the rim during tire mounting. Bead fracture can result to low-pressure explosions that can end up in very serious injuries, like head injuries, dismemberment or even death.

It is very important that manufacturers produce good tires and that drivers make sure that their vehicle’s tires are in good condition, especially before a long drive. While auto manufacturers advise car owners to replace their vehicle’s tires every six years, tire manufacturers lengthen the years to 10 (tires wear faster in southern states, though, because of the high temperatures in the region).

Victims of accidents (due to tire defects) have the right to pursue legal actions against liable parties, as well as receive compensation from them for all the present and future damages they will suffer due to whatever injury they have sustained.

Probation and other Common Sentencing Terms Explained

First-time defendants are often bewildered by how fast things can happen in a courtroom, and they are left wondering if their “suspended” sentence or “probation” is a good thing when brought up on misdemeanor charges such as driving under the influence (DUI) or petty theft. This article briefly explains what some of the more common sentencing terms mean, although if you have a competent criminal defense lawyer representing you, the explanation will be much more in-depth.

“Probation” and “suspended” sentence often go hand in hand. When a judge finds you guilty of a misdemeanor, a jail sentence is imposed. However, there are circumstances where the judge will decide that instead of sending you directly to jail to serve out your sentence, the sentence is “suspended” and you are granted probation terms instead. In effect, the judge is saying that you can avoid going to jail provided you satisfy the conditions of probation such as not getting arrested again for the same offense.

A “suspended” sentence is just that; it’s like an axe hanging over your head. If you commit another crime within the probation period or violate any of the terms of your probation, the axe will fall and you will go to jail to serve your sentence.

Probation is usually granted to people who are first-time offenders. Judges tend to be more lenient towards those who have a clean record prior to the charge because the presumption is that it was a mistake that will not be repeated. It’s not as good as a dismissal, because you still get a misdemeanor conviction tacked on to your record, but it’s better than going to jail. Also, if you complete your probation without trouble, your misdemeanor charge may qualify for expunction. Expunction is basically removing the charge from your record. This is not an easy process, but it can be done with the help of an expunction lawyer.

Obviously, you will want to complete your probation, but if circumstances lead you to violate any of the terms i.e. inability to pay the imposed fine, your lawyer may still be able to argue for reinstatement of your probation by asking for a “dismissed” or “suspended” fine if you do not have the means to pay it. The court may consider to dismiss a fine outright i.e. never collect it or to order other conditions in lieu of the fine i.e. traffic school, thus effectively suspending it until completion of the requisite conditions, at which time the fine is considered no longer collectible.

Don’t Get Mad, Get Paid

Divorce can be devastating, but according to the website of the Marshall Taylor Law Firm there are situations in which divorce can be a blessed relief. Infidelity is one of the main reasons for divorce, but there exist circumstances, at least in North Carolina, when your divorce lawyer may instead advise a different legal action first: an alienation of affection lawsuit.

Similar to a personal injury lawsuit, alienation of affection is a common tort law that allows a spouse who has been cheated on to demand compensation from the philandering spouse for it in civil court. It differs from adultery, which is a degree misdemeanor in most states where it is illegal that can include fines and jail time, because there has to be proof of sexual intercourse. With alienation of affection, which is not a crime, the aim is to get compensated for the loss of affection.

In order to qualify for an alienation of affection action in North Carolina, the plaintiff has to basically demonstrate that the marriage was a loving one prior to alienation because of a third party. The complaining spouse (scorned man/woman) can sue that third party for taking away the love and affection of the wayward spouse. In one case, a Raleigh woman married for 33 years sued her husband’s girlfriend for alienation of affection and won. She was awarded $9 million in damages. Whether she eventually divorced her husband is not detailed.

Alienation of affection is a centuries-old law that is currently in force in 7 states. Like with any tort, the plaintiff has the burden of proof, and alienation of affection can be difficult to prove. Since North Carolina is a no-fault divorce state, it would be easier to simply file for divorce, but perhaps resulting in much less satisfaction. A divorce lawyer would be invaluable in assisting in such a case.

If your spouse has been unfaithful, your natural reaction is to call it quits. But you can get back at your spouse’s paramour before filing for divorce by suing him or her for alienation of affection. Consult with a divorce lawyer in your area about helping you pursue this course of action.

Juvenile Offenses

More than half of the 73.8 million youths in the US in 2012 (who were all under the age of 18) were said to have either already been exposed to crime and violence or suffered abuses in the home, school and/or community. About 35 million have also experienced and sustained injuries from physical assault.

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) revealed that many of these youths have also been charged with criminal acts, like drinking, driving while intoxicated, drug abuse, disorderly conduct, gambling, vagrancy, vandalism, arson, carrying or possession of a deadly weapon, aggravated assault, robbery, rape and other sex crimes, murder, and so forth.

Juvenile crimes are reported to hit the highest point between 3 p.m. to 7 p.m., which is after school hours. About 1.5 million arrests were actually made in 2011 of persons under the age of 18.

Males are the ones more likely to commit crimes, though the number of females being caught has also been increasing steadily.

According to authorities the rise in the number of arrests is simply due to the more zealous and serious efforts of police officers in enforcing the law and not necessarily due to an increase in the number of juvenile offenders. This more concerted effort is aimed at preventing those who are caught from becoming repeat offenders, most of whom usually ending up as regular criminals. Furthermore, those within the age bracket, whether guilty of a crime or not, are made to understand that conviction does not only mean fines and citations – they are also educated on how even one arrest record can affect and damage their future professional lives.

Thus, despite being poor, being affected by problems in the home or school, peer pressure, gang membership, lack of supervision from parents, or exposure to a hostile environment during childhood, committing a crime will always mean punishment (which may include rehabilitation or imprisonment), as well as corrective measures.

The criminal lawyers in Fort Walton, FL, whose website can be found at, offers vital information on juvenile offenses. The website discusses the different types of offenses a juvenile may be charged with and the legal options available to protect his/her future from possible ruin.

Personal Injury: Accidents Involving Pedestrians

A car collision can cause severe physical injuries to the drivers involved and to the car’s other passengers (if there are any); imagine, however, the severity of harm it can cause pedestrians. Without anything to protect them from the forceful impact of an incoming vehicle, an accident will surely not leave a pedestrian unscathed: worst scenario is he/she may either suffer a severe injury or untimely death.

An article on the website of Habush Habush & Rottier S.C. ® airs the same concern, saying that the pedestrian will always be in the losing end; more so if the vehicle involved in the accident is an SUV or a truck as these vehicles’ bumpers can be higher than the pedestrian’s waist level [studies have shown that when a person is hit by a car (the bumper of which is below the person’s waist level), it would lift him/her onto the car’s hood; if the vehicle’s bumper is above the waist level, though, then the pedestrian can be thrown forward first and then possibly be run over by the vehicle].

Every year, around 70, 000 pedestrians figure in a car accident; about 4, 500 of these are fatal or end in death a few days after the accident. According to the National Safety Council, the greater majority of non-fatal pedestrian accidents happen in urban areas, where the volume of cars and pedestrian activities are always high. Fatal accidents, however, are more frequent in rural areas, where traffic is much lighter, allowing vehicles to run a greater speed; the absence of sidewalks, shoulders (as pedestrian facilities), paths and street lighting at nighttime (for greater visibility of pedestrians) also increase the risk of accidents.

Now, what makes pedestrian safety a concern for everyone? The fact that all Americans use streets and sidewalks longer and more often than driving their car. In fact, being a pedestrian is one thing that all Americans have in common. Besides walking, the description of a pedestrian also applies to joggers or to someone waiting for a cab or the bus at a street corner – it actually refers to anyone who is on foot.

To make streets safer for pedestrians and motorists, some car manufacturers have began introducing accident avoidance technologies in motor vehicles that will give drivers the needed capability to avoid crashing into anything or anyone. Among these modern safety features are the Forward Collision Warning system, the Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection with Full Auto Brake, and the Automatic Braking system. While there are features that simply slow down the vehicle to significantly reduce the force of impact (leaving the rest to the driver), there are systems that are capable of fully activating the brakes (without the need for driver input).

Accident avoidance technologies actually use car computers and sensors (radar, laser of video data) to detect any imminent collision with a pedestrian or another vehicle. Not all newly manufactured vehicles, however, are equipped with an accident avoidance technology, thus, one may consider choosing one (when purchasing a vehicle) that is equipped with a safety device.

A victim may be entitled to compensatory claims from the liable party/individual, but more often than not, however, it will be necessary to prove the other’s liability and support the injury with proper documents – a task that will definitely become easier and more orderly with the assistance of a personal injury attorney based in Santa Clarita.

Made beautiful by the experts at Bergman Folkers Plastic Surgery.